´╗┐ Department of Surface Engineering and Biomaterials :: Instytut Metalurgii i In┼╝ynierii Materia┼éowej Polskiej Akademii Nauk

Department of Surface Engineering and Biomaterials

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The Head of the Department: 

Professor Ewa Beltowska - Lehman, Ph.D., D.Sc.

Scientific Staff:

Professor Boguslaw Major, Ph.D., D.Sc.

Associate Prof. Roman Major, Ph.D.,D.Sc.

Associate Prof. Adam D─Öbski, Ph.D., D.Sc.

Associate Prof. Maciej Szczerba, Ph.D.,D.Sc.

Agnieszka Bigos, Ph.D.

Aldona Mzyk, Ph.D.

Klaudia Trembecka-W├│jciga, Ph.D.

Engineering - technical Staff:

Małgorzata Pomorska, M.Sc.

Zbigniew Kania, M.Sc.

PhD and MSc students:

Agnieszka Brzoza, M.Sc.

Mgr in┼╝. Gabriela Imbir, M.Sc.

Aleksandra Drewienkiewicz, B.Sc

Sebastian Sumara, B.Sc

Monika Wołowicz, B.Sc

Research issues of the Department:

Functional bio-materials with coatings for special applications in vascular systems and bone implants

  • Micro- and nanocrystalline materials produced by laser ablation

  • New biomedical blood contacting materials

  • New bone implants


  • Biomedical blond contacting materials (prof. Bogus┼éaw Major; Dr.Roman Major)

  • Multilayer tribological materials ((prof. Bogus┼éaw Major; Dr.Lukasz Major)

  • Materials with shape memory effect on the basis of single crystals and thin layer  stuctures (prof. Bogus┼éaw Major; Dr.Maciej Szczerba)

  • Anti-corrosion coatings produced by electrochemical method (Ass.Prof.Ewa Be┼étowska-Lehman; M.S.Paulina Indyka - PhD -student)

  • Stress related phenomena (prof. Bogus┼éaw Major; Dr.Anna Goral)

  •  Thermodynamical properties of intermetallic phases (Ass.Prof.W┼éadys┼éaw G─ůsior, M.S.Adam D─Öbski)

Current Research Projects /in progress/:

KMM-VIN Project FP7 MATTRANS, Materials for Transportations (2009-2012)

ERA-NET MNT/FP6, partner Austria/ ÔÇ×Nanostructural materials for implants and cardiovascular biomedical devices (CardioBioMat) (2009-2012)

Other research topics:

  • Antycorrosion coatings produced by electrocrystallization ( Ass.Prof.Ewa Be┼étowska-Lehman)

  • Residua Stress topography (Dr.Anna G├│ral)

  • Thermodynamic properties of intermetallics W┼é─ů┼Ťiwosci termodynamiczne faz mi─Ödzymetalicznych (Ass.Prof.W┼éadys┼éaw Gasior Prof.PAN; M.S.Adam D─Öbski)

PhD thesis

PhD thesis completed:

2007 - Roman Major PhD; Optimization of structure and phase constitution of biomaterials on the titanium and polyurethane substrate

2007 - Łukasz Major PhD; Structure and properties of multilayer composite materiale produced by laser ablation

2007 - Robert Kosydar PhD, Contribution of deposition conditions of boron nitride layers on structure and properties

2007 - Anna G├│ral PhD, Relation of microstructure on directional crystallization rate of plate eutectics in Al-CuAl2 alloys

2011 - Maciej Szczerba PhD; Structure and properties of magnetic single-crystals of Ni-Mn-Ga alloys /superviser: prof.Boguslaw Major/

PhD thesis in progress:

M.S. Paulina Indyka; Contribution of electrodeposition on microstructure and properties of Ni-W coatings /superviser: Ass.Prof. Ewa Bełtowska-Lehman/

M.S. Adam D─Öbski; Formation enthalpy of Al-Fe-Ti-Ni intermetallic


The most important achievements:

  • Description of laser modification processes of the aluminum alloys, carbon steel, construction alloy steel and high speed steel structure which is based on laser remelting and laser alloying.

  • Analysis of the influence of the laser deposition conditions in connection with the description of the ablation phenomenon (PLD technique) on the microstructure, phase formation in the non-equilibrium conditions and the range of the residual stress in coatings.

  • Development of the X-ray method of the residual stress measurements and experimental revision based on the analysis of the residual stress in thin coatings produced by different deposition techniques.

  • Analysis of the residual stress in the multiphase materials

  • Bio-medical coatings

Selected publications in the recent years

 B.Major, W.Mr├│z, T.Wierzcho┼ä, W.Waldhauser, J.M.Lackner, R.Ebner, Surface and Coating Technology, 180-181(2004)580-584,
Pulsed laser deposition of advanced titanium nitride thin layers

J.M.Lackner, W.Waldhauser, R.Ebner, B.Major, T.Sch├Âberl, Thin Solid Films 453-454(2004)195-202, Structural, mechanical and tribological investigations of pulsed laser deposited titanium nitride coatings

B.Major, J.T.Bonarski, W.Waldhauser, J.M.Lackner, R.Ebner, Archives of Metallurgy and Materials, 49(2004)83-92, Contribution of pulsed laser deposition conditions to texture, morphology and residual stress developed in TiN layers

J.M.Lackner, W.Waldhauser, R.Ebner, B.Major, T.Sch├Âberl, Surface and Coatings Technology, 180-181(2004)585-590, Pulsed laser deposition of titanium oxide coatings at room temperature - structural, mechanical and tribological properties

R.Kustosz, R.Major, T.Wierzchoń, B.Major, Academia, 3(2004)14-17, Designing a New Heart

R.Major, E.Czarnowska, A.Sowi┼äska, R.Kustosz, J.M.Lackner, M.Wo┼║niak, T.Wierzcho┼ä, B.Major, e-Polymer No026(2005)1-8,  electronic version, Structure and biocompatibility of TiN coatings on polyurethane produced by laser ablation

B.Major, Archives of Metallurgy and Materials 50(2005)35-46, Laser Technology in Generating Microstructure of Functionally Gradient Materials

B.Major, Chapter 7 ;Laser processing for surface modification by remelting and alloying of metallic systems, in "Materials Surface Processing by Directed Energy Techniques" Edited by Yves Paleau, Elsevier (2006)

L.Major, J.Morgiel, B.Major, J.M.Lackner, W.Waldhauser, R.Ebner, L.Nistor, G.Van Tendelo, Surface and Coatings Technology, 200(2006)6190-6195, Crystallographic aspects related to advanced tribological multilayers of Cr/CrN and Ti/TiN types produced by lulsed laser deposition (PLD)

R.Major, J.Bonarski, J.Morgiel, B.Major, E.Czarnowska, R.Kustosz, J.M.Lackner, W.Waldhauser, Surface and Coatings Technology, 200(2006)6340-6345, Elastic TiN coating deposited on polyurethane by pulsed laser

J.M.Lackner, W.Waldhauser, M.Berghauser, D.Hufnagel, R.Major, L.Major, B.Major, Plasma Processes and Polymers, Wiley- VCH Verlag GmbH, Wiley InterScience 4(2007)51-54, Growth Morphology, Adhesion and Mechanical Properties of Room-Temperature Pulsed Laser Deposition Cr-CrN Multilayer Coating

R.Major, F.Bruckert, J.M.Lackner, W.Waldhauser, M.Pietrzyk, B.Major, Kinetics of eucariote cells adhesion under shear flow detachment on the PLD deposited surfaces, Bull.Pol.Acad.Sci.Tech.56(2008)223-228

B.Major, F.Bruckert, J.M.Lackner, R.Ebner, R.Kustosz, P.Lacki, Coating on TiN and Ti(C,N) basis for biomedical application to blood contact and TiN/CrN multilayered tribologicala systems produced by pulsed laser deposition, Arch.Metal and Mater.53(2008)39-48

L.Major, J.Morgiel, J.M.Lackner, M.Szczerba, M.Kot, B.Major, Microstructure Design and Tribological Properties of Cr/CrN and TiN/CrN multilayer films, Advances Engineering Materials, Vol.10, Nr 7 (2008)617-621

B.Major, R.Major, F.Bruckert, J.M.Lackner, R.Ebner, R.Kustosz, P.Lacki, New Gradient Coatings on TiN and Ti(C,N) Basis for Biomedical Application to Blood Contact, Advances in Materials Science 7(2007)63-70

Ł.Major, J.Morgiel, J.M.Lackner, M.Kot, M.Szczerba, B.Major, Optimization of Ti-Cr-N Multilayer Wear Resistance Coatings Through Microstructure Control, Inż.Materiałowa, 157-158(2007)672-676

J.M.Lackner, W.Waldhauser, R.Berghauser, M.Kahn, F.Bruckert, R.Major, B.Major, Detachment Kinetics of Eukaryote Cells from Biocompatibile PVD Coatings; 50th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings ISSN 07375921, Society of Vacuum Coaters (2007) 74-77

M.J.Szczerba, J.┼╗ukrowski, M.S.Szczerba, B.Major, An investigation of Ni-Mn-Ga Single Crystals Compressed at Room Temperature
Arch.Metallurgy and Materials, 53(2008)253-257 Annual Report 2008; Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw,46-47

B.Major, Nanostructural materials for cardiovascular biomedical devices, Euromat 2009 /E21,Glasgow FEMS

R.Major, F.Bruckert, J.M.Lackner, P.Wilczek, P.Lacki, W.Waldhauser, B.Major,  Relationship between surface morphology and biological cells adhesion in hydrodynamic conditions

L.Major,J.Morgiel, J.M.Lackner, W.Waldhauser, M.Kot and B.Major,  Euromat 2009 /B16, Glasgow FEMS, Wear mechanism during ball-on-disc test of Ti/TiN composite multi-layer systems produced by hybrid PLD

A.G├│ral, J.Deda, E.Be┼étowska-Lehman, B.Major, Arch.of Metal.and Materials 53(2008)979-984, Analysis of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) and Prerequisite Tree (PT) for Selected Technologies of Coating and Layer Production, Arch.Metal.,and Materials 34(2009)439-447

M.J.Szczerba, J.Przewo┼║nik, J.┼╗ukrowski, Cz.Kapusta, M.S.Szczerba, B.Major, The influence of high temperature plastic deformation on magnetic properties of Ni2MnGa type single crystals

J.M.Lackner, W.Waldhauser, M.Schwarz, L.Mahoney, L.Major, B.Major, Vacuum 83(2009)302-307, Polymer pre-treatment by linear anode layer source plasma for adhesion improvement of sputtered TiN coatings

J.M.Lackner, W.Waldhauser, A.Alamanou, Chr.Teichert, F.Schmied, L.Major, B.Major, Bull.Pol.Ac.Ser.Techn.(2010), Mechanisms for self-assembling topography formation in low-temperature vacuum deposition of inorganic coatings on polymer surfaces

J.Sarna, R.Kustosz, R.Major, J.M.Lackner, B.Major, Bull.Pol.Ac.Ser.Techn.(2010), Polish Artificial Heart - material, technology, diagnostics

Boguslaw Major, Krzysztof Kubiak , Jan Bonarski, Maciej Szczerba, Łukasz Major, Anna Góral, A.Rakowska, Inż.Materiałowa 175(2010)614-617, AMT2010, Directionally solidified CMSX-4 Nickel Based Superalloys;Microstructure, Orientation, Residual Stress, Microanalysis

M.J.Szczerba, B.Major, M.S.Szczerba, Inż.Materiałowa 175(2010)280-283, AMT2010, A note on the kink bands in compressed Ni2MnGa single crystals

┼üukasz Major, Marcin Kot, Juergen M.Lackner, Bogus┼éaw Major, Polish Metallurgy 2006-2010 in Time of the Worldwide Economic Crisis (2010) 455-472; Committee of Metallurgy of the Polish Academy of Sciences; Editor K.┼Üwi─ůtkowski; Tribological Coatings on the Basis of Multilayer Systems

B.Major, R.Major, Bentham e-BOOK  (2011) (in realization), Tailoring of Tissue-Surface Interaction in Blood Contacting Materials

Boguslaw Major, Roman Major, Juergen M.Lackner, Wolfgang Waldhauser, Marek Sanak, Bogdan Jakiela, Jan Marczak, Marek Kowalczuk, Michal Sobota, In Tech - Open Access Publisher (in realization 2011), Functional Blood Contacting Materials Fabrication and Diagnostics


P 371147 ÔÇ×Pompa krwi, zw┼éaszcza pneumatyczna komora wspomagania serca" Zg┼éoszenie: Fundacja Rozwoju Kardiochirurgii, Zabrze; Instytut Metalurgii i In┼╝ynierii Materia┼éowej PAN, Krak├│w, JOANNEUM RESEARCH Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Graz AT

EP 1 912 687 B1 ÔÇ×Blond Pump in particular heart assist device" Foundation for Cardiac Surgery Development Zabrze, Institute of Metallurgy and Materiale Scence PAS Cracow, JOANNEUM RESEARCH Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Graz/Leoben

P 366528 ÔÇ×Spos├│b wytwarzania ochronnych kompozytowych warstw powierzchniowych na stopach tytanu na implanty kostne"; Zg┼éoszone na rzecz Politechniki Warszawskiej; Tw├│rcy: T.Wierzcho┼ä, B.Major, W.Mr├│z, E.Czarnowska, J.R.Sobiecki