Department of Multilayer Materials

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Head of Department: Prof. Pawel Zieba, Ph.D., D.Sc.

Scientific Staff:

Prof. Marek Faryna, Ph.D., D.Sc.

Associate Prof. Marek Lipiński, Ph.D., D.Sc.

Associate Prof. Joanna Wojewoda-Budka, Ph. D. D.Sc.

Associate Prof. Robert Chulist, Ph. D. D.Sc.

Kazimierz Drabczyk, Ph.D.

Grażyna Kulesza-Matkak, Ph.D.

Piotr Panek, Ph.D.

Zbigniew Starowicz Ph.D.

Zbigniew Swiątek, Ph.D.

    Marcela Ewa Trybuła, Ph.D.

Prof. Waldemar Wolczynski, Ph.D., D.Sc., Professor Senior


Engineering-technical Staff

Bogusław Drabczyk
Elżbieta Jankowska
PhD Students

Katarzyna Gawlińska, M.Sc.

Research Area

  Preparation and properties of micro- and nanointerconnections with the use of lead-free solders obtained in electrolytic process with organic bath complex (J. Wojewoda-Budka, P. Zieba, Z. Światek - cooperation with the DN-2)
The study will include the analysis of microstructure of micro- and nanointerconnections as well as the nanowires formed by electrolytic method with use of an organic complexing ingredients (citrates, EDTA, etc.). In addition, the microstructural examination with the aim of scanning and transmission electron microscopy techniques, the chemical composition analysis (EDS) followed by the phase analysis by X-ray diffraction for Sn-Zn alloy layers will be performed.

Development of new materials and technologies for photovoltaic structures  (P. Zieba, M. Lipinski, K. Drabczyk, G. Kulesza-Matlak, P. Panek, Z. Starowicz, E. Jankowska, B. Drabczyk)
Development of technology for new types of photovoltaic cells produced in a low-temperature processes using perovskite materials.
Application of metallic and semiconductor nanoparticles.
Development of crystalline silicon solar cells. Investigation of metal electrodes, application of transparent conductive layers.
The development of texturing using catalytic metal nanoparticles for increasing the light absorption in silicon wafers.

Presentation of Photovoltaic Laboratory in Kozy

Microstructure evolution and its influence on martensitic transformation in shape memory Heusler alloys (R.Chulist)
It is the main goal of the present study to show the role of intermartensitic transformation in Ni-Mn-Ga alloys. In particular, the 5M-7M and 7M-NM transitions will be analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction.  To answer the question what mechanism controls this transition the crystallographic relationship between these phases will be determined. Moreover, an analysis of particular variants will be performed.

Plating process optimization and properties of Ni-P and Ni-Re-P coatings electroless deposited and their reactivity with lead-free solders (J. Wojewoda-Budka)
Electrolessly nickel deposited coatings , despite the fact that have been used for years as plating in the electronics industry, are still very current and commented issue in the literature. The quality of the soldered interconnections is determined by the nickel bath and the resulting phosphorus content in the coating. Preliminary studies showed that the addition of rhenium reduces the phosphorus content in the plating, which should positively affect the quality of solder connections. The planned research will include the optimization of the production technology of Ni-P and Ni-Re-P coatings with different phosphorus and rhenium amount electrolessly plated on copper. Then each plating will be subjected to a complete characterization in the sense of its microstructure, composition, thermal stability (the crystallization temperature of the amorphous layers), phase composition after heat treatment. As a next step, the morphology and chemical composition of the interfaces formed due to the reaction between the plating and commonly used lead-free solders of Sn-Cu type and SAC305 will be undertaken. In the last step, the quality of the interconnections will be verified by subjecting them to a series of thermal cycles in accordance with the electronic industrial standards. The joints after thermal shocks will be examined in terms of microstructure, chemical and phase composition, as well as microhardness and shear tests will be performed in order to localize the crack propagation and to evaluate the optimal composition of the coating.

Development of spectroscopic analyses, diffraction methods and in-situ measurements in scanning electron microscope (SEM) (M. Faryna, R.Chulist)
The challenge of high resolution carbon measurements can be defined as how to obtain good spatial resolution, accuracy and precision despite the influence of contamination. The contamination has been traditionally measured by use of WDXS technique by recording variations of C Kα intensity as a function of time for a single measurement spot and application of different methods to reduce the contamination.

The improvement of physical spatial resolution during electron back scatter diffraction acquisition in the SEM can be achieved in two ways, mainly due to reduction of electron beam energy or due to application of a new technique known as transmission Kikuchi diffraction (TKD) being a development of a conventional electron backscatter diffraction (c-EBSD). As conventional EBSD is not adequate to analyse fine and ultrafine or highly deformed materials, the TKD technique allows to analyse orientations in such samples with better statistics than is achievable by automated crystal orientation mapping in TEM.

Research Projects from Ministry of Science and Higher Education (last 5 years)

·       M. Faryna - Properties of transparent ferroelectric ceramics and their correlation with crystallographic orientations and fluctuations of chemical composition in PLZT crystallites, Project No. NN 507443374, IMMS PAS, supervisor, 2008-2011.
·       W. Wolczyński, Optimization of single crystal formation strengthened by the intermetallic compound localized within the stripes generated cyclically, 480 038/N508/N, supervisor, 2010-2012,
·       J. Wojewoda-Budka, High temperature interaction of aluminum with ZnO and NiO single crystals o various orientations, Project Iuventus Plus, No. IP2011061071, IMIM PAS, supervisor, 2012-2013
·       R. Chulist, On the influence of intermartensitic phase transformation on the thermal stability in magnetic shape memory alloys, Project Iuventus Plus, No. 0063/IP2/2015/73, IMIM PAS, supervisor, 2015-2017.

Projects from National Centre for Science (last 5 years)
·       P. Zieba - Application of transient liquid phase diffusion bonding (TLP) for manufacturing electronic interconnections designed for serving in elevated temperatures, International project with Holland No. 378/N-Eindhoven/2009/0, IMMS PAS, supervisor, 2009-2012.
·       P. Zieba - Bulk and interfacial phase transformations driven by severe plastic deformation. HARMONIA project No. 2011/01/M/ST8/07822, IMIM PAS, supervisor, 2011-2013.
·       M. Faryna - Grain boundary analysis by three dimensional electron backscatter diffraction (3D EBSD). OPUS project No. 2012/05/B/ST8/00117, IMMS PAS, supervisor, 2013-2016.
·       M. Lipinski - Investigation of influence of metal and semiconductor nanoparticles on opto-electronic properties of composite materials, OPUS project No. 2012/05/B/ST8/00087, IMIM PAS, supervisor, 2012-2016.
·       G. Kulesza - Selection and detailed analysis of the directional surface texturization of crystalline, photovoltaic silicon in order to improve the optoelectronic properties. PRELUDIUM project No. 2013/09/N/ST8/04165, IMMS PAS, supervisor, 2014-2016.
·       P. Zieba - Analysis of the parameters leading to steady-state in Cu-based alloys subjected to high pressure torsion, OPUS project No. 2014/13/B/ST8/04247, IMMS PAS, supervisor, 2015-2018.
·       Z. Starowicz, The effect of the process parameters of the metal nanoparticles photochemical deposition on titanium dioxide on plasmonic properties of obtained nanostructures., PRELUDIUM project No. 2014/13/N/ST8/00858, IMIM PAS, supervisor, 2015-2017.
·       J. Wojewoda-Budka - Periodic layers structure formation in the solid state reactions in systems Mg/SiO2, Zn/Co2Si and Zn/Ni3Si, OPUS project No. 2014/15/B/ST8/00195, IMIM PAS, supervisor, 2015-2018.
·       R. Chulist - Advanced study of real structure on elastocaloric effect in Fe-based shape memory alloys, SONATA Project No. 2014/13/D/ST8/03108, IMIM PAS, supervisor, 2015-2018.

Projects from National Center for Research and Development (last 5 years)
·       W. Wolczyński - Control of the segregation in the middle -massive and massive castings made of iron alloys with content of carbon. Project No. 15006004, IMMS PAS, supervisor, 2008-2011.
·       P. Zieba - Special photovoltaic systems for the use in Polish Military Forces, Development project No. 0021/R/T00/2009/08, sIMIM PASupervisor, 2009-2011
·       P. Zieba - Designing and examination of the accumulator charging station based on solar cells for electrical vehicles (Development project No. R 10002010), supervisor in IMMS PAS, 2010-2013.
·       P. Zieba - PV-In-line processing of n+/p and p/p+ junction systems for cheap photovoltaic module production (Inline), Polish-Norwegian Research Programme, No. POL-NOR/199380/89/2014, supervisor in IMMS PAS, 2014-2016.
·       P. Zieba - Isothermal and refrigeration photovoltaic car body (WOLTER), GEKON Programme - Generator of Ecological Concepts, supervisor in IMIM PAS, 2014-2016.
·         W. Wołczyński - Development of the metallurgical method for the hard particles elimination from the brass during its continuous casting - CASTBRASS, PBS3/A5/52/2015, supervisorw in IMIM PAS, 2015 2017.
·         W. Wołczyński - Development of the innovative method for copper droplets coagulation, reduction and solidification in the post-processing slagsh- AWB1, No. PBS3/A5/45/2015, supervisor in IMIM PAS, 2015-2017.
·       K. Drabczyk - Innovative flexible photovoltaic cover -EPF, GEKON Programme - Generator of Ecological Concepts, supervisor in IMIM PAS, 2016-2018.

Structural funds
·       Operational Programme Innovative Economy, co-financed by European Cohesion Funds, Reliability improvement of lead-free interconnections in electronic packages, No. POIG.01.03.01-00-103/09, supervisor in IMMS PAS, 2010-2013.
·       Operational Programme Human Capital, co-financed by European Social Fund, Dissemination of Polish and world achievements in photovoltaics in the education process at high level-second edition, No. UDA- POKL.04.02.00-00-006/09-00, IMMS PAS, supervisor, 2010-2011.
·       R. Chulist, Foundation for Polish Science - Advanced study of the influence of real structure on magnetic field-induced strain in Ni-Mn-Ga single crystals, Project Homing Plus, No. Homing Plus/2013-8/3, IMIM PAS, supervisor, 2014-2015.

International cooperation
·       P. Zieba, Z. Swiatek - HgCdTe graded-gap structures for high efficiency IR detectors, Institute for Applied Problems of Mechanics and Mathematics NASU, Ukraine, 2009-2011.
·       P. Zieba, - Phase transitions in Al-alloys driven by the severe plastic deformation, Institute of Solid State Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, Russia 2011-2013.
·       M. Faryna - Microstructural investigations of advanced ceramics, joining of ceramics and ceramic composites, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Anadolu University, Eskisehir, Turkey, 2014-2016.
·       P. Zieba, Influence of nanosized additives on the physical and mechanical properties of the bulk materials and coatings, Space Research and Technology Institute of Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Bulgaria, 2015-2017
·       Z. Swiatek, Microstructure and physical/chemical properties of electrolytic Zn-Mo layers, Pidstryhach Institute for Applied Problems of Mechanics and Mathematics, National Academy of Sciences, Ukraine, 2015-2017.

PhD dissertation 
2007 - Joanna Wojewoda Budka - Characterization of phenomena at interphase boundaries of joints obtained due to diffusion soldering of copper substrates using indium alloys (supervisor: P. Zieba).
2007 - Roman Major - Optimization of the structure, phase composition of biomaterials onto substrate of titanium and polyurethane (supervisor: A. Pawlowski).
2011 - Anna Maria Janus - Correlation between morphology of natural hydroxyapatite and its biological interaction (supervisor: M. Faryna).
2012 - Przemyslaw Skrzyniarz - Microstructural and kinetic characterization of Ag/X/Ag (X=Sn,In, Sn-In) joints obtained by diffusion soldering (supervisor: P. Zieba).
2013 - Katarzyna Berent - Influence of crystal orientation on results of chemical microanalysis in SEM (supervisor: M. Faryna).
2014 - Grażyna Kulesza - Influence of the acid and alkaline texturization process on basic opto-electronic parameters of the silicon solar cells (supervisor: P. Zieba; assistant supervisor: dr P. Panek).
2014 - Piotr Bobrowski - Application of the three-dimensional orientation microscopy to microstructure characterization (supervisor: M. Faryna; assistant supervisor; dr A. Sypien).
2015- Zbigniew Starowicz-Elaboration and characterisation of plasmonic nanostructures for photovoltaic applications (supervisor: M. Lipinski; assistant supervisor: dr K. Drabczyk).
2015 - Jakub Cichoszewski - Metal assisted etching for silicon solar cells (supervisor: M. Lipinski)
2017 - Dagmara Fronczek - Microstructural and kinetic characterization of the phenomena occurring on the clads bounding surface manufactured using explosive welding (supervisor: J. Wojewoda-Budka).

PhD in progress
Katarzyna Gawlińska - Synthesis of photovoltaic structures based on perovskites and characterization of their physical and electrical properties (supervisor: M. Lipinski).